What is the Organ Transplantations?
Organ transplant is the process of removing cells, tissues, or living organs from the body, and then transferring them back to the same body or to another body.
Organ transplantation is one of the greatest advantage of modern medicine. According to the US Health resources and services a single donor can save eight people’s life with organ transplantation. The first organ transplant in history was a kidney which transplanted in 1954.
The most common type of organ transplant is blood transfusion, Blood transfusions are used to treat millions of patients every year, The term (organ transplantation) more commonly refers to organ transplants or hard tissues.
Types Of Organ Transplants:
Heart, lung, liver, pancreas, cornea, kidney, vasculer tissues and skin transplant are the most commonly transplanted organs according to statistics.
The organ transplant process consists of :
The patient's own tissues
Tissue from a real twin, so that its genes match exactly those of the patient-
Tissue from a person whose genes do not match the patient’s genes
In rare cases, tissues from non-human organisms (such as pigs).
Transplanted tissue can be:
Cells, as in stem cell transplantation
Part of an organ, as is the case with some types of liver or lung transplants
An entire organ, as in heart transplantation or kidney transplantation
More than one tissue (called multiple or complex organ transplantation).
Unlike blood transfusions, the transplant includes a major surgical procedure, the use of medications to suppress the immune system, and the process has the potential to reject the transplanted organ, as well as many serious complications that can lead to death. However, for patients with a failure in one of their vital organs, organ transplants may provide the last chance to survive.
Some organ transplants, such as a hand or face transplant, can greatly improve a patient's quality of life, but they are not performed to save him from death. The complications or risks of these operations are no different from the complications or risks of other operations from organ transplants. But it is still in the experimental phases.
ORGAN DONORS :
A tissue or organ donor can be:
A living person (whether or not he is related to the patient)
The tissues and organs are often preferred by living donors, as they are usually in better health. Stem cells (either bone marrow or blood) and kidneys are often taken from living donors. Usually one of the kidneys can be donated safely, because the body can carry out its normal functions with only one kidney, Live donors can also donate a portion of the liver or lung, Usually organ transplants are transplanted within minutes of their removal, In the United States of America, laws prohibit the payment of a sum of money for organ donation, but it is permissible to provide financial compensation in exchange for donating cells and tissues.
It is clear that some organs, such as the heart, can NOT be taken from living donors.
Organ transplantation is a risky process, and donated organs are rare, prospective recipients are examined and all factors that may influence the operation are investigated.
The immune system usually attacks foreign tissues, including implants, This reaction is called rejection, Organ rejection is activated when the immune system recognizes certain molecules present on the surface of cells in the donated tissue as foreign molecules (These molecules are called antigens).
Before the transplant is performed, the recipient's blood is checked and the presence of antibodies to the donor tissue is detected, The body may have produced such antibodies in response to a blood transfusion, previous organ transplant, or pregnancy with a child, If such antibodies are present, the transplantation may not be possible, because immediate and severe rejection of the transplanted tissue will occur. Doctors may resort to intravenous plasma replacement and intravenous injection of immunoglobulin’s to eliminate or inhibit antibodies, thereby making implantation possible when a close tissue group is not available.
Immunoglobulin’s taken from the blood of a person with a normal immune system are used for injection. Although these treatments are expensive, they seem promising.
Study the issue of legal, mental capacity.
Despite the successes achieved in the operations of human organs transfer and transplantation, these operations should be subject to strict safeguards to avoid the abuse of vulnerable persons, who may not be able to take the right decision regarding donating their organs due to their young age or limited mental capacity.
In order to fully understand all the process, effects, ensure that the donor and the patient are aware of every detail that could come across them during the operation and the future.
After the transplant, most patients are given anti-microbial drugs to help prevent infection. After 6 months, the risk of infection decreases to what it was before the new organ transplantation in about 80% of patients.